On 7 October 1593, the superintendent of the Venetian Republic founded Palmanova. The city used all the latest military innovations of the 16th century. Palmanova was a fortress in the shape of a nine-pointed star, designed by Vincenzo Scamozzi. Between the points of the star, ramparts protruded so that the points could defend each other. A moat surrounded the town, and three large, guarded gates allowed entry. The construction of the first circle, with a total circumference of 7 kilometers (4 miles), took 30 years to complete. The outer line of fortifications was completed between 1806 and 1813 under the Napoleonic domination. The final fortress consisted of nine ravelins, nine bastions, nine lunettes and 18 cavaliers.